How Do You Use ASIA Impairment Scale?

What is the ASIA Impairment Scale?

The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale or AIS describes a person’s functional impairment as a result of a SCI.

This scale indicates how much sensation a person feels after light touch and a pin prick at multiple points on the body and tests key motions on both sides of the body..

What does Asia a mean?

The ASIA Impairment Scale is follows the Frankel scale but differs from the older scale in several important respects. First, instead of no function below the injury level, ASIA A is defined as a person with no motor or sensory function preserved in the sacral segments S4-S5. This definition is clear and unambiguous.

How is neurological level of injury determined?

The neurological level of injury is determined by identifying the most caudal segment of the cord with both intact sensation and normal antigravity muscle function strength. The sensory level refers to the most caudal, intact dermatome for both light touch and pin-prick sensation (score=2).

What is a grade A spinal cord injury?

The AIS further classifies injuries as a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury. A complete spinal cord injury is defined as the absence of all motor and sensory functions, including sacral roots, distal to the site of injury. These injuries are designated as being Grade A on the AIS.

What is the difference between complete and incomplete spinal cord injury?

A complete spinal cord injury causes a total loss of muscle movement and sensation at the injured site and below. A person with an incomplete spinal cord injury retains some level of function below the level of the injury.

What are the levels of the spine?

The 8 cervical spinal nerves are C1 through C8, the 12 thoracic spinal nerves are T1 through T12, the 5 lumbar spinal nerves are L1 through L5, and the 5 sacral spinal nerves are S1 through S5. There is 1 coccygeal nerve.

What are the levels of spinal cord injury?

The part of the spinal cord that was damaged corresponds to the spinal nerves at that level and below. Injuries can be cervical 1–8 (C1–C8), thoracic 1–12 (T1–T12), lumbar 1–5 (L1–L5), or sacral (S1–S5). A person’s level of injury is defined as the lowest level of full sensation and function.

What is Brown sequard syndrome?

Brown-Séquard syndrome is a rare spinal disorder that results from an injury to one side of the spinal cord in which the spinal cord is damaged but is not severed completely. It is usually caused by an injury to the spine in the region of the neck or back.

What is Asia D spinal cord injury?

Grade D: The impairment is incomplete. Motor function is preserved below the neurologic level, and at least half of the key muscles below the neurologic level have a muscle grade of 3 or more (i.e., the joints can be moved against gravity). Grade E: The patient’s functions are normal.

What is the Asia level for a complete injury of the spinal cord?

A = Complete: No sensory or motor function is preserved in sacral segments S4-S5. B = Incomplete: Sensory, but not motor, function is preserved below the neurologic level and extends through sacral segments S4-S5.

What is the neurological level?

Determine the single neurological level. This is the lowest segment where motor and sensory function is normal on both sides, and is the most cephalad of the sensory and motor levels determined in steps 1 and 2. Determine whether the injury is Complete or Incomplete (i.e. absence or presence of sacral sparing)

What level is quadriplegia?

Cervical spinal cord injury C1-C8 Cervical level injuries cause paralysis or weakness in both arms and legs, resulting in quadriplegia (also known as tetraplegia). This area of the spinal cord controls signals to the back of the head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and diaphragm.

What is a Dermatome?

A dermatome is an area of skin in which sensory nerves derive from a single spinal nerve root (see the following image). Dermatomes of the head, face, and neck.

What causes neurogenic shock?

Neurogenic shock is often a result of injury or trauma to the spinal cord. As a result, your body loses function and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Your sympathetic nervous system maintains bodily functions during physical activity.

What does tetraplegic mean?

Tetraplegia (or Quadraplegia) means the paralysis of legs, arms, stomach and some chest muscles. Complete injury is where there is no muscle function, voluntary movement or sensation below the level of the injury.